On our first day in Cuba, sitting comfortably in our buses after the stressful experience of crossing borders, TK3 headed in great anticipation to Old Havana where we will be living for several days. On that very first bus ride, we heard Joe, our guide for the next 14 days, speak about the Cuban 5 who are incarcerated in US prisons. The Cuban 5 have not been forgotten by their country -- not in Havana, nor the small island, La Isla de Juventud. They have not been forgotten in Cienfuegos to the South or any town in between our destinations. Everywhere, there are their pictures and references to them. In Cuba they are called the Five Heroes: Antonio Guerrero Rodriguez, Fernando Gonzalez Llort, Gerardo Hernandez Nordelo, Ramon Labanino Salazar and Rene Gonzalez Sehweret.
In the Museum de la Revolucion, once inhabited by Batista and known as the Presidential Palace, on the top floor, the paintings of the nation's finest artists hang on marble walls, each piece inspired by the Cuban 5. When we visited schools, community centers, museums, restaurants, we would see posters of the Five. They stand in prison garb and around their photo are those of their families, especially their brave mothers and wives as well as their inspiring quotes. Young Gabriel and Antonio, sons of Antonio, and Luarita, Aili and Lizbeth, Ramon's daughters as well as Rene's daughters, Ivette and Irmita will grow up knowing their fathers have never been forgotten by their country, and held up as heroes. The Cuban 5 were mentioned each day at some time during our two week stay, and finally, at the end of our trip together, TK3 elder, Mitzi Asai said, "I'll be teaching an adult education class when I get home and I'm going to teach about the Cuban 5." She set the standard for TK3 -- to come home, tell the truth of what we saw in Cuba, and tell the story of the Five Heroes.
If you are like me, you do not know much about the Cuban 5. Perhaps you caught a small article in October this year about their re-sentencing. The motion to dismiss by the 11th circuit court in Atlanta was overturned. Antonio Guerrero Rodriguez, Fernando Gonzalez Llort, Gerardo Hernandez Nordelo, Ramon Labanino Salazar and Rene Gonzalez Sehweret must stay in prison. As ruled by the United Nations Human Rights Commission Working Group on Arbitrary Dentention, May 27, 2005, their incarceration is arbitrary and it contradicts Article 14 of the International Convention on Civil and Political Rights. Noam Chomsky calls the case of the Cuban Five "such a scandal that it is difficult to speak about it."
In fact, in September of this year when Professor of MIT, Noam Chomsky, was interviewed by BBC regarding the October re-sentencing, he said, "They weren’t criminals. They were heroes. I mean they were exposing to the US government crimes that are being committed on US soil; crimes the US government is tolerating and theoretically should be punishing itself." Instead, Professor Chomsky said, rather than acting on the information gathered by the five heroic Cubans and honoring them, the US government is punishing them. "And that’s why global opinion is so appalled by this travesty," Chomsky concluded.
In the early 1990's, these five men came to the United States to monitor Cuban exiles of southern Florida who were known to attack Cuba -- whether through false media attacks, political pressure or outright terrorism. The mid 1990's was a time marked by the crumbling of the Soviet Union with whom Cuba had a trade relationship. With the demise of the USSR, the Cuban economy suffered and Cuba turned to strengthening their tourist industry. South Florida Cuban exile terrorist groups began to wage a violent campaign against the tourist industry -- bombing hotels, airports. Terrorist acts occurred even before since 1959. Between 1959 and 2002, south Florida extremist terrorist acts killed 3, 478 and maimed another 2,099. The Reagan administration and those following should have been alarmed that 360 were committed on American soil -- 15 in Washington DC, 59 in New York, 172 in Miami, Dade County, 28 in Puerto Rico and 11 in New Jersey. Interestingly, seven were committed specifically on the date, September 11, in years before 2001, while another 5 were around September 11.
The US and even the UN did not listen to Cuba and their protests against these earlier terrorist actions. So in 1995, Cuba had no choice but to send people to infiltrate these terrorist groups and report any plans for attacks on Cuba, which the Five succeeded in doing. The Home Affairs Ministry of Cuba provided the FBI files of detailed information on plans for violence in Miami, audio and videotapes and information about the organizers of criminal activities. What was done with this information? The injustice is that rather than act on the new information, the FBI rounded up the Cuban Five.
In violation of human rights, the Attorney General's Office tried to make a deal with Rene Gonzalez Sehwerert saying that his wife and American born daughter would be deported unless he pleaded guilty. He refused to plead guilty and turn on the other four. His wife was arrested and brought to the Miami jail to be shown to Rene and he still refused. The INS then deported his family and they have never been allowed to see him, even his American born daughter.
The long trial of the Cuban Five in Miami ended after seven months with a conviction of the four of the Five for conspiracy to commit espionage, and for one, the conspiracy to commit murder. Of course, attorneys asked for a change of venue from Miami many times, but were denied. In December, 2001, the Five were given prison sentences. Antonio Guerrero was sentenced to life plus 10; Fernando Llort sentenced to 19 years; Ramon Salazar to life plus 18; Rene to 15; and Gerardo Hernandez Nordelo, two life sentences plus 15. They committed no crime. These are their sentences for fighting terrorism.
According to lawyers, Leonard Weinglass and Ian Thomas, "conspiracy to commit" is a charge prosecuters generally use in political cases. The charge of conspiracy relieves the government from having to prove the crime, crimes which was never committed. In other words, the government never had to prove the espionage that never occurred. The charge of "conspiracy" receives the same sentence as the actual crime -- life imprisonment.
The lawyers for the Five go on to say that there are other groups like the Five who infiltrate organizations on behalf of protecting their home country against threat, just as the US does in other countries themselves. To their knowledge, the lawyers say that these groups have not been prosecuted, but just sent back home.
Cuba is treated very differently by the US in many instances -- immigration policy, exchanges, and, in the case of the Cuban Five, the punishment for infiltrating organizations dangerous for their country. The lawyers believe that the difference in treatment is solely based on the way the US deals with the Revolution.
As of October, Antonio was imprisoned in Colorado, Gerardo in California, Ramon in Texas, Rene is in South Carolina, and Fernando in Wisconsin. All are in maximum security and were, at first, confined "in the hole" with no light, for one and a half years. In violation of human rights, the wives of the men have been denied visas by the United States to see their husbands. Ramon's beloved mother died since imprisonment,
This is while the known terrorist, Orlando Bosch, still walked the streets of Miami. Labeled by the US Justice Department as the most dangerous terrorist in the Western Hemisphere, he is responsible for the recruiting of Luis Posada Carriles who masterminded the bombing of a Cuban airline jet in 1976 which killed all passengers on board. Carriles was only recently jailed, after freely living out in the open in Florida for the last six years. Roberto Martin Perez, south Miami terrorist and good friend of Eduardo Avocena, imprisoned terrorist for having bombed sites in New York City and New Jersey, was being wooed by Presidential candidate John McCain who made a promise to release Eduardo Avocena.
I conclude with some words lifted from Antonio Guerrero Rodriguez' defense statement presented December 27, 2001:
Why so much hatred for the Cuban people?
Is it because Cuba chose a different road?
Because its people want socialism?
Because it did away with the large estates and wiped out illiteracy?
Because it gave free education and medical care to its people?
Because it lets the dawn break freely over its children?
Cuba has never placed the security of the United States in jeopardy nor committed any act of aggression or terrorism against it. It deeply loves peace and quiet and wants the best relations between our two countries. It has shown that it admires and respects the American people.
'Cuba is not a military threat to the United States,' Admiral Carroll said in this courtroom. General Atkinson testified that Cuba presents 'zero military threat' to the United States.
It is my country's unquestionable right -- like that of any other -- to defend against those who try to harm its people.
The job of putting a stop to these terrorist acts has been complex and difficult because the terrorists have enjoyed the complicity and lax tolerance of the authorities. My country has done everything possible to warn the US government of the danger of these acts and to do so it has used official, unofficial and public channels. However, such cooperation has never been reciprocated.
In the 90's, fired up by the demise of the socialist camp, terrorist groups intensified their activities against Cuba. It was, they felt, the long dreamed hour for stirring up the final chaos, for terrorizing the people, destabilizing the economy, damaging the tourist industry, building up a crisis and dealing the death blow to the Cuban Revolution.
What could Cuba do to defend itself and be forewarned of the terrorist plans against it? What could it do to avoid a greater conflict? What options did it have to safeguard its sovereignty and the safety of its children?
One way to prevent these brutal and bloody acts, to prevent the suffering becoming worse because of more deaths was to move quietly. There was no alternative but to rely on men who -- out of love for a just cause, out of love for their country and their people, out of love for peace and life -- were prepared to voluntarily agree to carry out this honorable duty against terrorism, that is, to give advanced warning of the danger of attack.
Antonio ends his defense with several quotes.
If I were asked to do the same thing again, I would do it with honor. An excerpt from a letter that Cuban general Antonio Maceo who fought for Cuban Independence in the 19th century, wrote a Spanish general comes to mind at this time with force and passion: "I shall not find any reason for having cut myself off from humanity. I pursue not a policy of hatred but of love; this is not an exclusionist policy but one founded in human morality."
Because of your rulings, my beloved brothers and I must be unjustly kept in prison, but there we shall not cease from defending the cause and the principles we have embraced. Your honor, many days and months of an unjust, cruel and horrible imprisonment have gone by! I have sometimes wondered, what is time? And like Saint Augustin, I have answered myself, "If they ask me I don't know but if they don't ask me, I do know." Hours of solitude and hopes, of reflection about injustice and small mindedness; eternal minutes in which memories burn bright. There are memories that burn the memory!
I take these verses by Marti for the last page that I write in the diary of my long days:
"I have lived:
It was a duty that I pledged my arms
And not once did the sun drop down behind the hills
That did not see my struggle and my victory . . ."
And here in this courtroom I quote from the Uruguayan and world poet, Mario Benedetti: " ... victory will be there, just like me, simply germinating"
Because in the end, we shall rest free and victorious beneath that sun which we are denied today.
Son, patriot, father, poet, artist, thinker and beloved son of the Cuban people.
Write to two of the Five Heroes and let them know you know their story.
Fernando Gonzalez Llort
Ruben Campa Federal Detention Center
P.O. Box 019120
Miami, FL 33101
Ruben Campa Federal Detention Center
P.O. Box 019120
Miami, FL 33101
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